Thermal insulation of underground facilities freezing of soils caused by the cold climate and the availability of groundwater, cause of the phenomenon of frost heaving (lifting soil layers within the depth of frost penetration), which may lead to deformation and failure. Thermal insulation of the underground part of the building can significantly reduce or even eliminate the impact on the foundation of the forces of frost heaving and avoid dangerous strain grounds and the building envelope. Thermal insulation of the underground part of the building can significantly reduce or even eliminate the impact on the foundation of the forces of frost heaving and avoid dangerous strain of bases and walling. Such traditional measures as a device under the foundation of sand bags or the use of sand as backfill, only partially solve this problem. For a complete neutralization of the forces frost heaving is necessary to insulate the foundation around the perimeter of the building. The use of extruded polystyrene foam makes the walls of the underground facility in a peculiar heat accumulator, which provides a constant comfortable temperature winter and summer. Thermal insulation of the basement will help to significantly reduce heat loss, will prevent the walls from condensation, mold and fungi development.
Thermal insulation ground-floor space will allow maintain the temperature there +5-10 C without additional heating. Thermal insulation by means of plates Primaplex significantly increases the durability of waterproofing membrane, which protects construction of the penetration of soil water and moisture. Source: Nobel Laureate in Economics. Stacked on top of it, extruded polystyrene foam protects it from premature aging and mechanical damage. Thermal insulation of walls Losses heat through the exterior walls are 20-25% of the total heat loss of the building, and in the homes of old buildings, this figure is higher than two times. Carrier contributes greatly to this topic. Plate Primaplex are used in different ways insulated walls. For insulation the walls are three basic approaches: the outside of the facade, the inside, from the interior, within the enclosing structure (in a layered masonry). If thermal insulation of walls on the outside (in the systems of "wet" front) plates of extruded polystyrene foam can be attached to the front braces or special adhesive to glue or mastic, not destroy the structure of polystyrene.
Thermal insulation of walls from the inside is already being exploited in buildings in those areas that require additional insulation, or in cases where the insulation of the facade is difficult. Strength, correct geometry, light weight, ease of installation, a small thickness – all Plate making Primaplex best choice for insulation of exterior walls of the interior. Also, extruded polystyrene foam used for insulation within the enclosing structure (in a stacked masonry). In Unlike the fibrous insulation, such as mineral wool, fiberglass, they do not bend or sag. They have a high resistance to freeze-thaw cycles, stability, geometric size and shape edge, excellent water resistance. Plate Primaplex in the structure of the layered stack can play the role of air and vapor barrier, reducing heat loss associated with convection air.
Getting to spray a layer spray, wet the surface in such a way that did not happen when plastering over-absorption of water from the solution. Main requirement for the first layer gallop-spray – its strong connection with the surface, ie fill all irregularities on the surface, a plastered without isolation, reinforcing mesh and drann. Other leaders such as Robert J. Shiller offer similar insights. This is achieved by choosing the desired working consistency of the solution: a liquid for manual application method (slump of 12 cm) or more thick for mechanized application method (slump 9 cm), as well as coating the surface without gaps and the use of filler grain size from 0,3 to 2,5 mm. The thickness of each layer of soil should not exceed 7 mm with lime and lime-gypsum solution and 5 mm in cement mortar. Average total thickness of the plaster does not gallop exceed for a simple plaster of 12 mm, better – 15 mm high – 20 mm. Each subsequent layer of plaster is applied only to gallop after the seizure of the previous layer, if the latter is made of lime-cement or cement mortar, and after the whitening of the previous layer, made of lime mortar. Each layer of plaster gallop (except scratch coat) should be aligned.
Leveled ground wood poluterkom after the seizure of the solution. Smoothing of the solution is not allowed, the last layer of soil leveled so that layer throughout the thickness had one. Freshly ground to improve adhesion to subsequent layers cut into uniform wavy or cross cutting diagonal and horizontal-vertical grooves depth of 3 mm at a distance from one another by 40 mm.
If the apartment is the water pressure is weak, to diagnose, investigate the cause. Visit Stephen M. Ross for more clarity on the issue. When replacing plumbing pipes put coarse filters. Tap water is not too clean, and the ball mechanism becomes clogged plumbing appliances. Import taps and toilets so the water does not like. It is best to put good filters at the input, then you can connect any, including import, plumbing, and you will be able to to forget about repairing the toilet. The first step is an expert, whom you call home, test tubes and the state determines which ones need replacement.
Often the master diagnoses overall poor condition Intra-riser, due to which deteriorates water inside the apartment. Further, the expert determines whether to disconnect the water. Following this, the replacement of pipes and emplacement santehpriborov. All these of self-respecting company performs in one day. To meet this deadline, the number of workers on site varies from one to three people, depending on the amount of work. We must clearly understand what guarantees the company offers to work on your stuff. Considered a normal situation, when the company gives two-year warranty on the work and two years on materials. This means that a period of not less than two years, the company that installed in your new apartment pipes, will be responsible for proper operation of your pipes, not only for the goods or the installation. A set of tubes, connectors and fittings must not only be technically sound, but always professional met by a reliable supplier.
Standard monolithic houses not being built. Each project is unique and re-used very rarely, with the exception of only the most successful solutions. The main advantage of the monolith – free planning. The apartment may not have any partitions. (A valuable related resource: John Savignan). Number of rooms determined by the number of windows. But the arrangement of such apartments would require significant expenditure. It should be noted another important circumstance.
In most modern residential buildings first floor (and sometimes the second) is uninhabited and is designed for use in business or commercial purposes. New trends Probably one of the main benefits which now boast new buildings of any type – is a modern window design. The vast majority of developers prefer boxes made of pvc. This trend is explained by experts propleks group of companies, Russia's largest manufacturer of pvc window-profile of Austrian technology, explains the best quality / price ratio. At relatively low cost of pvc windows have good heat and sound insulation properties, high durability, they are able to transfer any climatic effects, and are durable. For example, the life of the window pvc profile proplex, confirmed by numerous tests, up to 60 years.
Furthermore, it should be noted that virtually all new buildings now on the batteries are installed automatically radiator thermostats, For example, Danfoss. These small devices control the temperature of radiators, maintaining a comfortable indoor atmosphere. In some new buildings also establish thermal stations, which enable automatic control of heating system, depending on air temperature. Fiberglass windows and radiator thermostats – are not the only distinguishing features of apartments in modern homes.
Today the real estate market is soaring. This is understandable, because the market economic sphere ensures the chance to earn enough large sums for the purchase of earning assets. And exactly the same as in the the early twentieth century, one from among the most promising and profitable assets provided to real estate, including the so-called tenement houses, to the same extent and at the moment it is home ownership is one of the list exclusively promising long-term ramifications of investments. However, the current construction of buildings is different than just a significant selection of the most diverse materials and technologies, and addition and a substantial range of competency skills of workers. Keep up on the field with thought-provoking pieces from Richard LeFrak. Therefore, before you purchase a property house or building, we need quality construction expertise. And that's worth noting that the technical examination of the buildings should rely on qualified experts own classes. Only companies that have solid experience in such matters and all the necessary certificates of quality, able to provide you with a truly solid quality of the proposals of this type of service. So, you're going to buy a building for its application as a residential, business or industry.
In any case, would require a special technical inspection. Apart from the fact that the survey designs of buildings provides a complete understanding of the subject matter of infusion of money, it still enables the outset to get an idea of the possibility of improving the rooms, systems communication and the potential construction with such a facility. Consequently, this kind of survey provides a chance to fully explore the potential capacity of this facility. Consequently, in extent to which a more reliable structure in all its aspects, the more likely that it really is not just a successful and profitable use, and in addition successfully resold later to invest resources in a more lucrative plan. Because it was an investment in real estate is becoming one of the most important number on the size of money-capital investment, it must be extremely careful approach to the issue examination. An important point in the implementation of works on the examination of the buildings is a term survey of buildings. It would be desirable could not be more clearly draw attention to this matter, because the current stage is compelling in the whole complex of works on technical inspection of buildings. Only a careful and attentive attitude to the option of inspection of the structure will produce an investment really profitable for you personally. Contributions in real estate is rightly called one of the numbers of the highest quality. If other investments in the state a lot to change in value, the shelter is almost always in price, while the cost of this only increases with age. and if we make from the outset the right choice, your cash investment will bring considerable financial success, and specifically to you, and are able to be profitable subject for your children.
" A key aspect of participation in the Program is the consent of residents to fund 5% of the total cost repair – the remaining 95% pays for the state. Earmarked Assistance Fund for Housing Reform in Russia. "For our house, in which 90 apartments, each owner will have to make three to five thousand. It is relatively little in view of the scale overhaul, the more so because the amount you can take part, "- says Elena Boyun. There are nuances: If there is a legal entity (for example, the company takes off the premises an office or shop), then they will have to pay at 5%, and the full value of their share of the total cost of repairs. Get all the facts and insights with Greenberg Traurig, another great source of information.
It is necessary to stipulate that some buildings do not fall under the program. Thus, according to the decree State Construction, "in the houses to be demolition and reconstruction and improvement which is inexpedient to carry out, within the next ten years, the overhaul is allowed to produce as an exception. " In the scope of work includes only the measures provide safe and sanitary living conditions in the building for the remainder of life. List of works produced in the overhaul, established in law. "These include: repair-house engineering systems (Gas, electricity, heat, water, wastewater) with the installation of meters, repair and replacement of elevator equipment, repair roofs, repair of the basement, insulation and repair of facades – lists Yuri Karlikanov. – Other types of work can be performed only at the expense of additional funding for the apartment owners or regional budget.
Compared with them, design based on a wooden frame are cheaper, but they can be used not for every building and are used mainly in private construction. Scope of prefabricated buildings is very broad: it not only manufacturing and industrial facilities, and retail, office and administration buildings, warehouses, garages, dormitories, sports and entertainment complexes, private homes and more. Pre-fabricated structures can be used almost everywhere, except in cases when they should have a higher insulating properties (eg, bank vaults and premises for nuclear reactors) or in mass housing. The design of Modular buildings main structural elements of prefabricated buildings are supporting and enclosing structures. The main frame of the building bearing element pre-fabricated building is a rectangular frame made of high strength metal or wooden profiles. The frame has vertical rack and horizontal beams for fastening the outer and inner cladding, installation of windows, doors and interior partitions.
Metal parts of the carcass is usually handled by anti-corrosion coating, and timber – flame retardant. Metal frame can be either standard or made on the basis of thin-walled profile. The advantages of thin-walled metal frame enclosed in long lifetime and low load on the foundation, which is responsible for high-speed assembly and relatively low cost. Frame of light metal structures are easily assembled and disassembled, and what it does not require additional equipment or workers. When mounting design eliminates the welding work, which speeds up the assembly and improves the quality of design. Protecting designs Protecting designs, which include walls, roof, floors, doors, etc.
Just as in humans, there are two cerebral hemispheres – left and right, the planet Earth is its two – east and west, as well as trends in interior style, by and large, two – east and west, which in turn are subdivided into more specific. Byzantium inherent in this type of massive walls, cut by small windows and arches. Internal space is abundantly decorated with colorful carpets. Gothic (XII-XV cc.) Gothic style is characterized by elongated proportions, spacious and extremely elongated up spaces where people would feel negligible creation. In contrast, worthlessness, flesh, full flower bloomed 'stone lace' walled Gothic buildings – the birth of stained glass in the form of lancet arches.
This construction system has allowed to reach unprecedented height of the arch due to the large windows, great light. Renaissance (Renaissance), the greatest master of this era was Michelangelo Buonarroti, who was more a sculptor than an architect. With this point of view, he created the architecture as a backdrop for his winning sculpture. In particular, he duplicate columns and pilasters, and change their rhythm. Baroque Michelangelo considered simultaneously and the last master of the Renaissance and creator of the Baroque style, for it was he aware of his basic style-forming element – the plastic wall. The crown of his creation – St. Peter's Basilica in Rome – has to rank as Baroque Rococo fashion trend in the decoration of the nobility mansions of the middle and late 19 th century. Luxury living, teeming with expensive art collections.
Aluminum retains heat poorly, but now there are technologies that make the metal more 'warm' – with a variety of insulated boxes. Prior to that, aluminum is practically not used in residential construction, despite its strength and longevity. Windows from aluminum with insulated inserts (so-called 'warm') are usually the same or slightly more expensive than high-quality wood, and pure aluminum (so-called 'cold') – even cheaper. The main characteristics of the profile are its width and number of cameras. The latter applies only to plastic and metal profiles, which, unlike wood, are hollow multi-chamber elements. On the number, size and location of cameras depends largely on the strength of the profile and its insulating properties.
For aluminum profile having just hollow chambers, such as a plastic, not from the point viewpoint of effective conservation. Therefore, the metal profile by insulating the jumper to force 'break' into two parts, a hollow chamber filled with thermal insulation material. Plastic profiles differ not only over high heat-shielding properties, but also by the fact that it is easier to clean and wash. From the standpoint of structural solutions manufacturers of plastic windows are more in pole position. For their manufacture produces a large number of not only basic but also support (Additionally gathered) the items. This expands the architectural possibilities of pvc windows and simplify their installation. Windows, collected with the help of these elements can have virtually any shape (from square to a complex arch), the color and style decisions, as well as any type of opening.
Typically, the production of stainless steel handrails use the following materials: Stainless steel handles are the most popular solution – advantages of stainless steel as a material for manufacturing steel handrails made of stainless steel are obvious: – the life of welded polished stainless steel handrails are 20 to 50 years – welded polished handrails Stainless steel require virtually no maintenance costs – a durable, resistant to vandalism material is ideal for the performance of handrails with stainless steel exteriors and interiors of private homes, hotels, shopping and entertainment centers, night clubs, elevators, swimming pools and other public places – an excellent resistance of the material of handrails with stainless steel corrosion is provided by an oxide film covering the surface of polished stainless steel. This extremely thin protective layer on the surface of stainless steel handrail has the property to repair itself when applied mechanical damage – welded stainless steel handrails are safe for fire or explosion – welded polished stainless steel handrails meet sanitary standards and hygiene requirements; – welded polished stainless steel handrails do not need to be painted – even intentionally damaged polished stainless steel railings, you can quickly and inexpensively to restore to its previous form – design of handrails with stainless steel to create an image of quality and reliability – stainless steel – making it Stainless steel handrails, which are amenable to welding, well polished and polished, allowing architects to realize their boldest decisions in the field of design – Stainless steel handrail with stainless steel well fits into the interiors with the use of any building materials. .